The rate of use of contraceptive methods by married women of childbearing age, is 70% ( ) and the same as Argentina and Cuba. This Puerto Rican rate is almost same as the developed countries’ ones. Besides it’s worthy of attention that abortion is legal in Puerto Rico.

Puerto Rican Women for Dummies

The suffragists and women laborers were solidly supporting the right to vote for women movement. The suffrage movement had been flourishing with the increase of women laborers, the emergence of women activists in the labor movement, the expansion of women intellectuals and the activities of suffragists. In 1898 the Regional Federation of Workers , first organization with the character of a labor union, was founded. The next year they changed its name to Liberty Federation of Workers and restarted. This organization tried to organize and educate female workers actively to prevent the wage level of all workers from falling because of the low wages of female workers. The union made woman suffrage one of its demands as early as its fifth conference in 1908. This was first important claim of right to vote for women in Puerto Rico.

In the early 1900s, women all across Puerto Rico were unionizing in earnest. By 1904, eight women’s unions had organized to lead strikes and protests demanding equal wages and worker protections. Capetillo and other women called for women’s suffrage to be a central political platform at a worker’s organizing meeting in 1908.

As changes in the economy took place, women joined their male partners in the struggle to improve working conditions. Thus, women were active participants in and key members of the labor movement from the very beginning. However, as their role in the economy became more prominent, working women became targets of gender and racial discrimination, and their struggle in many instances was interwoven with issues of race, gender, and class. Viewing women solely as workers in the agricultural economy, some industrial managers attempted to limit and control Puerto Rican women’s reproductive choices in order to increase the efficiency of the economic system.

In their communities, Puerto Rican women have been active against police repression, which has wounded and killed many of their sons and daughters, and for elementary necessities such as street lights, more frequent garbage collection and tenants’ rights. A police attack on a community park led to several days of rebellion by the Puerto Rican community.

The funds lasted only two years; then in 1936 the private Maternal and Childcare Health Association opened 23 clinics. Women first organized and collectively fought for suffrage at the national level in July of 1848. Suffragists such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott convened a meeting of over 300 people in Seneca Falls, New York. In the following decades, women marched, protested, lobbied, and even went to jail. By the 1870s, women pressured Congress to vote on an amendment that would recognize their suffrage rights.

This book examines workers, both in Puerto Rico and on the U.S. mainland. It contains a range of information–historical, ethnographic, and statistical. The contributors provide insights into the effects of migration and unionization on women’s work, taking into account U.S. colonialism and globalization of capitalism throughout the century as well as the impact of Operation Bootstrap.

These stark stories from the Los Angeles County U.S.C. Medical Center are haunting, especially the story of Levina Hernandez who did not find out that she had been sterilized until years after her son was born. At the heart of the case was the question of whether women were coerced into being sterilized and if so, if latinas were targeted. At the end of the trial in 1978, the judge ruled that neither of the charges were true, citing “misunderstandings’ due to the fact the women primarily spoke Spanish. The judge blamed their distress from the procedure on “cultural background” that made these women believe that their worth was in their ability to have children. Another cause of the decision was that voluntary informed consent was not a legal requirement until 1974, after the case was decided. At the time of the procedures, there were no serious legal objections to asking women to consent to an irreversible procedure while she was in the middle of labor .

The state legislature also repealed the sterilization law from 1909 which had allowed for 20,000 non consensual procedures . In both the cases, Latina women were targeted for sterilization procedures in ways that were either aided by the U.S. government or permitted by loose legal restrictions on the procedure.

In 1915, the Socialist Party was founded as the political section of this union and this party became the first party that demanded woman suffrage. This party expanded their power in the 1920s when the right to vote for women was argued actively. In the 1930s the party was able to push forward the suffrage movement from its position as one of the ruling parties in the coalition government.

In addition, they have a female governor who was an ex-mayor of the capital, San Juan. In Puerto Rico there was already a female mayor of the capital from the 1940s to the 1960s, her name was Feliza Rincon. I got the impression that women participated remarkably in every field and part of society. In 1948, the first Puerto Rican governor was chosen by popular election.

Dichotomous variables for meeting each guideline in pregnancy were evaluated as outcomes in separate multiple logistic regression models. The likelihood of alcohol consumption was not modeled because of low prevalence in this population (1.6%).